What Causes Dark Spots on the Skin?

Johnny Yu

To understand why people are suffering from Dark Spots

kojic acid’s effects, it is necessary to understand how the skin gets it color. The body naturally produces a pigment known as melanin through specialized cells known as melanocytes. A person’s genes determine how much melanin the body naturally produces. In people with fair skin, only small amounts of melanin are manufactured by the melanocytes, while copious amounts of the pigment are made by the cells of those with dark complexions.

The production of melanin in the skin does not occur in fixed amounts. Often, the cells produce more melanin in response to the environment or internal conditions in the body. When the skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation from the sun, the melanocytes increase their production activities, causing the skin to tan. Repeated exposure to the sun can result in a permanent increase in melanin production in spots on the skin, causing small freckles and larger sun or age spots to form.  Melanin production can also increase when the skin becomes chronically inflamed. This is a common problem among acne sufferers who have prolonged discoloration of their skin after their acne blemishes heal. Hormonal changes that occur in the body during pregnancy can also spur melanin production, leading to a discoloration on the face that is known as melasma or chloasma. The overproduction of melanin caused by inflammation and hormonal activity typically declines over time, resulting in a gradual fading of the darkened skin.

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